Researchers Investigate Prevalence of Gingivitis during First/Second Trimesters of Pregnancy

At the 94th General Session & Exhibition of the International Association for Dental Research, researcher Mr. Michael Reddy, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA, presented a study titled “Gingivitis during the First/Second Trimesters of Pregnancy”. The IADR General Session was held in conjunction with the third Meeting of the IADR Asia-Pacific Region and the 35th Annual Meeting of the IADR Korean Division.

This investigation evaluated the effects of gestational age, study site, and demographic factors on first and second trimester pregnancy gingivitis using baseline data from a large multicentre study. Screening was conducted to identify pregnant women between 8 and 24 weeks of gestational age with at least 30 gingivitis bleeding sites. Trained examiners measured whole mouth gingivitis scores at up to 168 sites using a standard 4-point clinical index (Loe-Silness GI), and bleeding site counts were determined by subject. Using baseline values, regression analysis was used to analyse the natural history of gingival inflammation during the late first trimester through the second trimester of pregnancy.

For this study, 817 women were screened. Baseline gingivitis measures were collected on 746 women, and 666 evaluable women with more than 30 bleeding sites were included in this baseline analysis. Mean gestational age at gingivitis examination was 17.1 weeks, while maternal age averaged 27.8 years, ranging from 18 to 46. The gingival inflammation mean was 51.2 sites, ranging from 30 to 144. From the regression analysis, study site and maternal age were significant factors in gingival bleeding. Centres differed by 4.0 gingival inflammation and younger women presented with higher measured gingival inflammation. Gestational age and ethnicity were not significant factors in gingival bleeding during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy.

Clinical examination of more than 600 pregnant women showed moderate to severe gingivitis to be common, well-established and relatively stable in the late first and second trimester, and regular dental care prior to and during pregnancy may be critical to maintaining oral health.

This study was funded by a grant from the Procter and Gamble Company (#2011001). – International Association for Dental Research (IADR)